The notion of a theory of action can be seen as growing out of earlier research by Chris Argyris into the relationships between individuals and organizations Argyris, Theories of prejudice In a cultural backlash, the term reverse sexism emerged to refocus on men and boys, especially on any disadvantages they might experience under affirmative action.
Fear of unemployment works especially well. According to Marilyn Brewerprejudice "may develop not because outgroups are hated, but because positive emotions such as admiration, sympathy, and trust are reserved for the ingroup.
By the remediation of sexism in institutions and culture, women would gain equality in political representation, employment, education, domestic disputes, and reproductive rights. This is how Peter Senge Women on average earn less pay than men for doing the same job.
Prejudice is bred by the existing differences between one social group and some other. Yet people are often impatient to "get on with it" when they most need to slow down and think carefully.
This they describe as Model I — and it can be said to inhibit double-loop learning.
Are there other ways to interpret this situation? People who are unable to strike out at the real source of their frustration look for someone to blame.
But some psychologists pointed out that the convergence theory over-emphasizes the conflict aspect of prejudice and fails to take note that prejudice is the product of social learning which starts from early childhood of an individual.
We need to become aware of our own tendency to confuse our view with "The Truth". Fairminded critical thinkers learn to recognize that their own ways of thinking and that of all other perspectives are some combination of insight and error. Symbolic threats arise from a perceived difference in cultural values between groups or a perceived imbalance of power for example, an ingroup perceiving an outgroup's religion as incompatible with theirs.
If my behaviour is driven by my not wanting to be seen as incompetent, this may lead me to hide things from myself and others, in order to avoid feelings of incompetence. Single-loop learning is like a thermostat that learns when it is too hot or too cold and turns the heat on or off.
This social theory thus contends that most often the most marginalized have little strength for self-defense.
This can be seen even when the resource is insignificant. In the mids, linguist Tove Skutnabb-Kangas captured this idea of discrimination based on language as the concept of linguicism. Uncritical thinkers often confuse loyalty with always supporting and agreeing, even when the other person or the group is wrong.
Argyris was also a director of the Monitor Company in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The class should often explore the connections between specific details and basic concepts or principles. S-9 Developing Confidence in Reason Principle: It is thus a situation where one group has beliefs, attitudes and opinions about the way of behavior, cultural practices, religion, norms, and values of another group, which are not necessarily true but rather preconceived Agerstron and Rooth Kendall says that the conditions under which they live and work are deplorable.
At the same time, norms change over time, so this can only go some way towards explaining prejudice.Prejudice, or bigotry, is an affective feeling towards a person or group member based solely on that person's group membership. Contemporary theories and empirical findings.
The out-group homogeneity effect is the perception that members of an out-group are more similar. Prejudice involves having negative attitudes and stereotyped beliefs about members of a group.
Learn why prejudice forms and how to overcome it. Menu. Understanding Prejudice. Share Flip Email Search the site GO. More in Theories Cognitive Psychology Behavioral Psychology Biological Psychology Developmental Psychology Personality Psychology.
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The sociological theories that explain the existence of prejudice among humans have been generally grouped into three broad categories according to the sociological perspectives.
These are the functional theory, the conflict theory, and the symbolic interaction theory. Chris Argyris: theories of action, double-loop learning and organizational learning. The work of Chris Argyris () has influenced thinking about the relationship of people and organizations, organizational learning and action research.Download